Sanding and polishing

We sand every day a variety of solid timber floors, floating floor, particleboard, and parquetry. We also sand old existing floors after we remove the previous coverings and we often find a suitable wood hiding beneath the old coverings. Floor sanding usually involves three stages: Preparation, sanding, and coating with desired product. 
All our sanding jobs are completed with specialized sanding machines, tools and equipment which allows us to work clean and without dust. By this process the majority of material is removed. The areas where we can't reach with large machines such as, edges, corners, and stairs we sand with a smaller machine called an edger. A finishing machine is then used for the final sanding.
We punch all nails in which are protruding above the boards. Otherwise the nails can severely damage our sanding machine. We remove the staples or tacks which were once used to fasten previous (if any) coverings and so we reduce the possibility of damage. Some brands or types of adhesives which have been used to secure coverings may need to be removed, otherwise they would clog papers and running gear of the machines used. Some of these adhesives while present make sanding impossible.
As soon as we finished with preparation we can start with sanding.
The first cut is done with course grit papers to remove old products and to make the floor flat. Through that we reduce the differences in height between the boards. The large sanders are used across the grain of the timber. The areas which cannot be reached by the large sanders are sanded by an edger, as the same grit paper as the rest of the floor. If filling of holes or boards is desired this is the stage where this is usually done.
And at last:
Coating which usually our customer chooses or we can advise what is suitable according to the circumstances. Sometimes is really hard to make the right choice in terms of finish, there are many different finishes, to help you with the decision please watch this video compare different finishes
There are many options such as:
Synteko Solid oil finish is an alkyd-based natural high solid oil, matte floor finish with excellent properties. It has extremely high solids (90%) and therefore gives up to three times more coverage compared to normal wood floor oil. The product is oxygen curing and provides a beautiful smooth surface with an excellent resistance to wear. Synteko Solid oil is formulated for treatment of wood and cork floors and also wooden stairs, sills, benches, decks, etc. Due to the excellent wear resistance of the product, it is especially recommended for use in commercial areas like offices, stores, museums and other areas where high wear resistance is needed coupled with low maintenance costs.
We would recommend if for households with animals and heavy traffic areas. Unfortunately solid oil finish doesn't offer satin or gloss finish. It gives timber a raw, rustic look.
Polyurethane water-base finish is a two-component, water-based, low-odour, non-yellowing aliphatic polyurethane hardwood floor finish for use in high traffic and commercial areas. This finish is highly desirable because it emphasises the timber's natural colour and not the coating on top. It comes in three gloss levels: Matte, Satin and Gloss. Polyurethane finish gives maximum resistance to wear, scratching, scuffing, marring and chemicals. It is, therefore, ideal for surfaces subjected to unusually heavy wear. It can be used on untreated or previously finished timber surfaces.
  • It is a non-toxic timber floor finish, does not contain isocyanates.
  • 100 % polyurethane
  • Proven resistance to wear
  • Non yellowing
  • Maintains natural timber colour
  • Fast drying (1-3 hours)
  • Non-flammable
  • Safer for the environment
Modern Polyurethane finish is a fast-drying, two-component, acid-curing hardwood floor finish for interior use based on modified amino and alkyd resins in a solvent mixture. This finish has an amber colour, enhancing natural wood colours. It delivers an extremely durable, long lasting, smooth, very glossy and beautiful finish. Suitable for finishing of hardwood and other timber floors in residential as well as in commercial areas. It is self-sealing and its excellent workability and fast drying time provide the benefit of one-day job application. It is available in three gloss levels: Matte, Satin, Gloss.

However because these finishes flow into the tongue and groove joint between boards and glue the boards together, when natural shrinkage occurs, boards tend to clump together causing unsightly gaps between some boards at irregular spacings or splitting within some boards.
  • Toxic fumes contain isocyanates = are harmful to the respiratory system and are particularly dangerous for asthma sufferers.
  • Necessary to vacate premises
  • Yellowing by UV-light
  • Long drying times 6-8 hours
  • Unnatural plastic appearance
  • Highly flammable
  • Harmful to health and environment
Tung-oil finish - produce subdued or semi-gloss appearance. Tung-oil is a drying oil which is extracted from the seeds of a tree. When applied, it is absorbed slightly into the surface of the timber and allows the natural seasonal shrinkage and expansion to occur without highlighting the gaps between boards. Although this finish may show marks more easily than hard surface finishes, most marks are generally easily removed with little methylated spirits on a damp cloth. Provided tung-oil finishes have not been waxed, areas which received most traffic can be recoated to restore their appearance, and these will generally blend quickly with the surrounding original finish. If the floor was waxed, the waxing process has to be repeated every year. After a the waxed surface turns dull.
Liming is a type of bleaching process carried out before a finish is applied to the floor. Liming generally gives a floor a lighter, slightly milky appearance.

Environmentally friendly finishes: 

OSMO  oil-/wax-based finishing system
Natural raw materials
  • All Osmo finishes are based on oils and waxes. Oils maintain the value of wood as a natural raw material
  • Natural, environmentally-friendly and harmless to health
  • Manufactured based on purified, renewable raw materials
  • Harmless for humans, animals and plants when dry
Top quality product features
Workability and compatibility of the colour are of major importance
  • No water as a solvent due to the lack of workability at high temperature (reduced open time) and roughening of the surface
  • No preserving agents, thus no unpleasant smell, high storage stability and low allergy potential
  • No ?eco? - solvents such as orange peel oil, as they are very often irritant and allergenic
  • No normal white spirit as a solvent because the aromatic compounds are
  • With disaromatized white spirit that makes the colour more workable and minimizes health risks
  • With pigments that are registered for the food sector
  • With linseed oil, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, sunflower oil, soybean oil, thistle oil
Osmo is neither a traditional varnish manufacturer nor an eco-manufacturer but keeps the balance between functionality and ecological awareness.
Open-cell character (microporous)
  • The binding agents of Osmo finishes are based on natural, vegetable oils that penetrate deeply into the wood and protect it.
  • The binding agent keeps the components of the finish together and guarantees the adhesion with the surface (oils link and net with the wood fibres)
  • Pigments and waxes as a filler are the solids of the Osmo-finishes. They are the structural substance for the binding agent and cure the finish additionally.
  • The oils fill the pores of the wood and protect it from stagnant moisture which would otherwise damage the wood, however, the oil does not form a watertight film
  • The wood remains open-pored and can still absorb and release moisture. Colour ?works? with the wood.


High-solid product
  • High solid content (up to 99 %)
  • The amount of substances remaining on the surface (oil and waxes) is very high
Finely ground raw materials
  • All raw materials are finely ground in bead mills
  • Therefore an optimal penetration and filling of the pores is achieved which increases the coverage of the colour substantially
In general, Osmo finishes need an absorbent surface.
  • Lacquers have to be sanded off before treatment with an oil
  • Oil finishes from other manufacturers can be re-finished after cleaning (release film)
Wood remains "breathable" with Osmo.
When renovating, cleaning the surface is sufficient in order to avoid a release film.
Advantage for interior: easy to renovate - even partial renovation, e.g. in high traffic areas.
Advantage for exterior: Osmo finishes do not peel off but weather over years. Thus, a new coat can directly be applied without sanding (over time the coat of paint lightens as pigments are being washed out).
Prerequisite for this process is that the wood moisture is under 20 % so that the oil can net with the wood.
Osmo in comparison to lacquer
Lacquers and thick film finishes are film-building coatings that do not net with the wood but lay on the wood surface.
  • Resulting in a closed film that protects the surface against weathering and other influences - will be a problem as wood ?lives?.
  • Swelling and shrinking in connection with moisture cause small cracks to develop enabling moisture to penetrate. The film surface is not sufficient for releasing the moisture. Resul: moisture damages the wood (rotting).
  • Emerging vapour pressure loosens the colour from the wood (flaking).
  • There is the risk that traces of brush marks are visible
Those problems do not occur with Osmo finishes:
  • The microporous finish enables the wood to work without harming it and moisture can be absorbed and released naturally, complying with the natural characteristics of the wood
  • Optimal connection between wood and colour
  • No flaking or peeling
  • Prerequisite: wood moisture content below 20 %
  • No brush marks due to a longer open time
  • Even a layman can create a professional surface
Osmo hardwax oil and different finishes

Treatex Hardwax Oil

  • Treatex Hardwax Oil is manufactured on a base of linseed oil, sunflower oil, jojoba oil and alkyd resin modified with natural oil. It contains beeswax, carnauba wax, dandelilla wax and the siccatives cobalt and zirconium.
  • Volatile components: isoparaffin, white spirit, free from aromatics.
  • manufactured and processed with the least possible risk to humans and the environment
  • on base of natural sustainable raw materials such as linseed oil, sunflower oil, jojoba oil,  beeswax, carnauba wax and dandelilla wax
  • contains no pollutants and very few solvents
  • virtually odourless
  • quick drying
  • easy 2 coat application
  • no sanding between coats
  • microporous or closed porous surface possible depending on application quantity
  • will not blister, peel or flake off
  • complies with regulation DIN 68861-1B: resistant to substances such a wine, coffee, fizzy drinks, tea, beer etc.
  • complies with regulation DIN 53160: sweat and saliva proof
  • complies with regulation DIN EN 71-3: safe for use on children's toys.
  • durable
  • slip resistant
  • will not discolour
  • easy to clean with Treatex Floor Care - spot repairable
  • suitable for use on stairs, wood, cork and OSB floors
  • recommendable for those with dust allergies, dirt and dust can be removed easily
  • available in clear, matt, lustre and gloss


The newest generation of water clean up wood floor finish for professionals.
  • cost effective and more efficient
  • saves labour, travel time and fuel costs
  •  no catalyst or X-linker
  • less chance of lap marks conventional water-based products
  • provides outstanding durability with excellent film build
  • recommended for commercial and residential applications and is made in the USA
Technology for the future
Oil and water-based technology gives you the convenience of water-base with the look and durability you would expect from an oil-base. All within a one component, no x-linker needed finish.
The beautiful appearance of oil
ABSCO will give you the rich look of oil and bring out the beauty of your hardwood floors for years to come. When used with our ABSCO sealer, an oil like appearance is creased with this self-levelling, fast-drying system. ABSCO is available in gloss, semi-gloss and satin finishes.
Great coverage with easy application
ABSCO provides you with an excellent self-levelling, fast-drying formula. This easy to use finish will cover 400-500 square feet per gallon. You can recoat within 2 hours and clean up is with soap and water.
275 VOC Formula 
VOC compliant
ABSCO is formulated to meet all the national and local requirements. This very low odour formula can be used on all job sites where interior wood needs to be coated. 
Last-n-Last LNL-1500 Commercial Grade Waterborne Wood Floor Finish
Fully loaded to offer ultimate advanced protection:
  • maximum durability
  • aluminum oxide
  • no x-linker
  • 15 year warrant
  • microban protection
Our LNL-1500 Commercial Wood Floor finish incorporates superior added protection with aluminum oxide, microban antimicrobial protection, and UV absorbers in a single component non-yellowing urethane finish. The proven durability of LNL-1500 is even backed by a 15-year residential wear warranty. Our advanced waterborne formula is friendlier to the environment and features low odor, fast dry time and easy clean up. LNL-1500 is the ultimate choice for the professional. 
275 VOC Formula available in Gloss, Semi-Gloss, Satin 
Products with lower VOCs
At Last-n-Last we have created a line of products with lower VOCs that are of professional quality, providing beautifil, durable protection. Our advanced waterborne formulas are friendlier to the environment, feature low odor, fast dry time and soap and water clean up.
What are VOC's?
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. 
Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints, varnishes, and wal all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. All of these products can release organic compounds while you are using them, and to some degree, when they are stored. 
What is Microban?
Home is where you go to relax and spend time with family. It's not a place where you want to worry about microbes like bacteria, mold and mildew that can cause stains, odors and product deterioration. Microban antimicrobial product protection is your ally in the fight against microbes. Microban technology makes the products in your home easier to clean and keeps them cleaner between cleanings by fighting the growth of damaging microbes. 
Products with Microban
At Last-n-Last we have incorporated Microban into a variety of our products. Microban antimicrobial protection is built-in during manufacturing to provide continuous antimicrobial product protection. When microbes, such as bacteria, mold and mildew that can cause stains, odors and product deterioration come in contact with the product surface, Microban protection penetrates the cell wall of the microbe and disrupts key cell functions so that the microbe cannot function, grow or reproduce. 

Rubio Monocoat

"Protects and colours your wood in one single layer!
Rubio Monocoat Oil Plus: environmentally friendly oil
based on a revolutionary technology!"

Rubio Monocoat Oil Plus colours and protects your wood in one single layer. Unlike the traditional hardwax oils, Rubio Monocoat Oil Plus will connect with the wood ply by means of a molecular reaction, as a result of which a durable protection is obtained. This molecular connection enables the Rubi o Monocoat Oil Plus to embed in the surface’s upper microns immediately. The wood fibres can only combine with a certain amount of oil. Oil, which has not reacted, doesn’t bed and needs to be removed.

Rubio Monocoat Oil Plus 2C is a dual component oil for indoor applications on wood, consisting of RMC Oil Plus (A) and RMC Accelerator (B). Very suitable for treating indoor applications,
which require quick drying. Rubio Monocoat Oil Plus 2C is applied in one layer.

Maintain1.jpg - small

Bona Naturale 2- Component Finish is the next generation of timber floor protection features the look and feel of pure wood. 

Imagine a system which allows you to feel the texture of the timber whilst barely changing the look of the surface Engineered without a traditional matting system Bona Naturale has a sheen level of only 6%.   

Walking on to a Naturale Floor you can't see the protective coating only what appears to be a raw unfinished timber floor and yet Naturale has a resistance to wear designed for commercial environments. Not only can you see the natural appearance of the wood but the surface feels like wood under your feet. 

The Bona Naturale system is comprised of Bona Naturale Base - waterborne and contains less than 10 % solvents and Naturale 2-Component. To achieve the look and feel of pure wood no other finishes can be used with the Naturale Products, although if a floor is to be stained Bona DryFast stain can be specified. 


  • The look and feel of pure wood
  • very high resistance to wear, scuff marks and scratches
  • minimises edge-bonding when used with naturale base
  • partly made of renewable resources
  • good resistance to household chemicals
  • slip resistant AS/NZS 4586:2004 R10 rating 
  • even wood colouration  - non yellowing
  • the ability to spot repair the system

Blackbutt 130x14 mm 

Bona Naturale Finish


Blackbutt 130x14 mm

Bona Naturale Finish


Blackbutt 130x14 mm

Bona Naturale Finish


Blackbutt 130x14 mm

Bona Naturale Finish


Bona Traffic is two-component non-toxic waterborne polyurethane timber floor finish with an excellent resistance to wear. Recommended for high traffic domestic and commercial areas such as restaurants and retail outlets, Traffic is available in two gloss levels - satin and special matt look called "Invisible Protection" (IP) which highlights the natural beauty of the timber without distracting shine and reflections. Traffic is suitable for re-coating most existing surfaces including pre-finished timber. When coating bare timber Traffic should be used in conjunction with Prime Intense or Classic.  


  • 100 % polyurethane
  • excellent wear resistance
  • non-toxic low odour 
  • non-yellowing finish film
  • non-flammable
  • fast drying
  • suitable for re-coating most finishes
  • natural satin or matt (IP) sheen
  • minimises edge-bonding when used with Bona Primer
  • slip resistant 

Bona Naturale on cypress pine 

Cypress pine with Trek water based finish 

American Oregon parquetry with OSMO hardwax finish